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Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic Surgery , a type of popular plastic surgery aims to improve a person's appearance, but should be approached with caution. It usually bears permanent solutions but this is important to be sure about the decision, to use the services of an appropriate practitioner, and to have the right motivation.

Reconstructive Surgery 

Reconstructive Surgery is another type of plastic surgery that aims to improve function to present a normal appearance to a part of the person's body that has been damaged. Corrections are administered  to treat the defects due to congenital malfunctions, trauma, severe infection, developmental abnormalities, malignant tumours or diseases. Few examples of such surgeries include deformities of hand , Scar removal, Breast reduction, Cleft lip and palate, Tissue expansion etcetera. 

Cosmetic Surgery  vs Plastic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is performed on normal, healthy body parts so as to improve and enhance their respective appearance. People choose to undergo this surgery mostly to enhance the way they look, based on their perceived ideals of beauty. Plastic surgery or reconstructive surgery on the other hand  corrects an abnormality that results from a birth defect, accident or a certain health condition. Most often, this surgery addresses not just the deformed appearance, but in addition seeks correcting or improving some particular deficiency or abnormality in the function of the body organs. 

Cosmetic Surgery Procedures 

 An extensive variety of aesthetic procedures are available for different parts of the body. It is advisable to undergo extensive counselling before undergoing any of those.

  • Mammoplasty may address Breast augmentation or enlargement, traditionally performed through using saline or silicone gel prosthetics, and of late using fat grafting.

  • Breast Implants are used to increase breast size or aid in reconstruction post surgery while Breast reduction may reduce the risk of breast cancer in women who run high risk of acquiring breast cancer.

  • Mastopexy or a breast lift removes skin and glandular tissue to make the breasts smaller and rearranges  remains of tissue to give the breast a lifted appearance. Usually, this can be combined with an implant.

  • Male Breast Reduction treats Gynecomastia  which is an enlargement of the mammary tissue in men is treated through Liposuction.

  • Liposuction or suction-assisted lipectomy  uses thin cannulas, or hollow metal tubes  to vacuum fat from various parts of the body. Usually the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips, arm back  and neck. It could also be used for male breast reduction. 

  • Vulvovaginal Surgery  aims to reduce elongated labia, usually as part of a vaginoplasty.This includes labiaplasty, labia minora reduction, or labial reduction involving operating on the labia majora or labia minora of the vulva, part of the female genitalia. 

  • Abdominoplasty also called tummy tuck reshapes and firms the abdomen by removing excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen, with the aim of tightening the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. This procedure helps losing a great deal of weight post pregnancy. 

  • Buttock Augmentation adds up to the appearance of the buttocks by making them larger. Either, the surgeon will graft fat from another part of patient's body through liposuction, or the Silicone Implants might be opted. 

  • Blepharoplasty ( Eyelid Surgery) intends  to reshape the eyelids that with age factor experiences lax skin , drooping or hooding of the upper lids, or puffiness under or on the lower lids. This type of Surgery could be functional, cosmetic or both and mostly involves removal or repositioning of excess skin and fat which may reinforce the surrounding muscles and tendons and as a result changes the shape of the face or tightens the skin.

  • Rhinoplasty ( Nose job) involves reshaping the nose of the patient in order to improve the appearance and most often breathing, too. The procedure could be performed with small incisions well hidden, often inside the nostrils. Surgeons prefer the patient to be atleast 15 years old so as to allow full growth of cartilage and nose bone. 

  • Otoplasty (Ear Surgery) is used to treat prominent or misshapen ears via surgically "pinning" the ear nearer  to the head with sutures or reshaping the cartilage, or in cases do both. It could be chosen to treat one or both ears and is most commonly performed in children above 5 or 6 years as the ears essentially reach adult size by that age.

  • Rhytidectomy (Facelift) surgically removes wrinkles and tightens the facial skin to achieve more youthful appearance. Atypical to this procedure, Incision is placed in front of and behind the ears, stretching  into the hairline in the temple area. The skin is lifted off the deeper facial tissue, redraped tight, excessive of skin is removed. Later, incisions are sutured.

  • Browplasty (Brow lift or forehead lift ) helps removing signs of aging through lifting the drooping eyebrows , removing wrinkles from forehead, or creasing away the worry lines. Most often, It is clubbed with other cosmetic procedures to acquire more aesthetic  facial appearance.

  • Chin Augmentation gives the chin a bit more prominence alongside providing  balanced facial features through either a prosthetic implant or manipulation of chin bone.

  • Cheek Augmentation ( Malar ) helps making cheekbones more prominent by having an option to place an implant at top of the cheekbones.

  • Fillers are medical implants that iron out wrinkles and increase the volume of the back of the hand, treat nasolabial folds, cheeks, and lips to look plumper. Complications are not ruled out. Fat Injections, Collagen Injections are few examples of the dermal fillers. 

  • Chemical Peels cure acne, pock marks, scars, or wrinkles. A number of active agents may be used and are pronounced safe plus effective for both light and darker skins. 

  • BOTOX comprises of range of cosmetic surgeries that aid in improving  appearance, treat wrinkles , facial creases and is apt to treat frown lines at forehead, crow feet ( lines around the eye), axillary hyperhidrosis i.e.  increased sweating of the armpits, etc.

  • Stem-cell enriched fat grafts have been trialed for reconstructive surgery, with promising results. Further Research is on. 

  • Laser skin treatment helps minimising fine lines, wrinkles, abnormal pigmentation like sunspots through concentrated, pulsating beams of light during several medical sessions to bear visible results.

  • Hair Transplantation helps renew hair growth. In this procedure, tiny hair follicle grafts from the back of the scalp, where hair usually tend to be denser are picked and are transplanted with minute incisions to the areas of the scalp affected by hair loss. It requires several sessions to achieve required  results. Though like after 6 weeks, the transplanted hair fall out, 3 months down the line, new hair grow. 

  • Dermabrasion is a skin-resurfacing procedure that uses a rapid rotating device and sands the outer layers of skin. Later,  the skin that re-grows is smoother and younger looking. The procedure helps decreasing fine facial lines, improves the appearance of scars, such as those caused by acne. 

  • Laser resurfacing (lasabrasion, laser peel, or laser vapourization) directs short, concentrated pulsating beams of light at irregular skin, methodically and precisely removing skin layer after layer.

  • Laser removal of hair is the commonly held cosmetic procedures in which the laser beams are concentrated to administer light into hair follicles where the pigment present in follicles absorbs that light which destroys the unwanted hair . It helps the women rid of shaving, tweezing, or waxing. 

  • Laser removal of pigmentation treats Freckles, Sun Spots, Hyperpigmentation, Age spots (solar lentigines) , Flat pigmented birthmarks (congenital melanocytic naevi). The laser, Alexandrite 755nm produces  high energy light wavelength , which is converted into heat energy and is capable to target specific areas of pigmentation while eliminating the desired object . 

  • Tattoo & Birthmark Removal through Candela Trivantage and the V beam Perfecta.

  • Cosmetic tattooing or permanent make up helps to give a feature to a faint eyebrow, absent or  partial eyebrows. While a lip tattoo reduces "lipstick bleed," and assigns a  definition to the lip line. If you use a coloured lip tattoo, the lip scars are likely to be invisible.  So, you can kiss a lipstick or an eye pencil good-bye for several years. In its serious medical avatar, it may be used to improve the appearance of a nipple after breast reconstruction.

 CHECK-LIST FOR PATIENTS UNDERGOING COSMETIC SURGERY 

  • Always engage a reputable surgeon. Cross check essential credentials.

  • After obtaining surgeon's advise, weigh your options. Make your own informed decisions. 

  • Educate yourself enough to be able to understand the procedure, all the pros and cons.

  • Discuss thoroughly the risks and limitations and a possibility if the procedure might require  repeat in 6 months?

  • Plan the surgery  well. Avoid lining it up around stressful circumstances such as switching jobs, bereavement, pregnancy, shifting to a new city,etc.

  • Never decide on a cosmetic surgery to please or impress anyone apart from self.

  • Avoid to an extent traveling too far for treatment, and if travel is evitable, ensure if  the arrangements are reliable and you have finances in place.

  • Be alert on non-refundable deposits, you might like to change your mind.

  • Keep your family doctor posted at all stages:  pre, post and during surgery.

  • If possible, speak with people who have undergone cosmetic surgeries. Check with your Surgeon- the before-and-after photographs. 

  • Be very sure about sterility guide lines being followed by the authorities to avoid infection.

Possible Complications of Cosmetic Surgery 

In case, the patient notices any of the following symptoms during or shortly after surgery, he or she must seek medical attention: 

  • unusual pain

  • visual disturbances

  • white skin near an injection site

  • signs of stroke

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